This is a very big topic that could take volumes to discuss in any detail, but I promise not to bore you with anything like that. So here are 5 little gems of information that you should be doing to make sure you’re projects are consistently in control, on budget and on schedule.
Tip 1: Always Start with an Accurate Estimate
You’d be surprized how many projects get underway without having completed much planning; or that move forward with an over-optimistic estimate. While estimating takes a bit of time, it’s well worth the upfront effort. It’s made easier and even more accurate if you can leverage information from historical projects to feed future estimates. Bearing in mind of course that not all projects are made equal and there are details in each that need to be considered, tweaked and accounted for.
Speaking of details: another key to accurate estimates is being able to determine costs down to the resource level. This implies that you first need to know your resource costs (for labor, equipment and materials), and second that you’re detailing your project tasks to include the resources needed, along with the quantities of each. This type of bottom-up estimating requires a bit more effort, but pays off when your project comes in on budget.
Tip 2: Manage, Track and Document Project Changes
Changes happen on projects. It’s inevitable. How you manage and document project changes will have a key impact on your profitability. Here’s one reason why: you can easily be held responsible to pick up extra project costs if you can’t produce the necessary documentation that proves out a change request. Don’t let that happen. It’s essential to have a formal way to track, measure and report on change – in addition to documenting its impact on scope and cost.
Getting into any sort of dispute with a subcontractor or an owner is not a good place to be; and disputes are almost always a direct result of either side not being able to produce an appropriate amount of documentation or audit trail. So track and document everything!
Tip 3: Track Your Projects to get Current and Accurate Information
Make sure you have a system in place to get current and accurate project information. Details. Details. Details. You need details. You don’t always need to look at the details, but when something goes sideways – and it often does – you can save yourself a huge amount of grief and cost if you have them. Unfortunately, paper-based time-cards, or using a spreadsheet to track projects is probably not sufficient when managing complex projects. When you have a lot of moving parts, resources, activities, etc. having a proper project tracking software solution that provides good reporting and metrics is important.
When choosing a tracking solution, make sure it can track more than just labor, and more than just time. Time is important of course, but tracking cost and revenue is key. Make sure you can track the following: Labor, Equipment, Materials, Expenses, Suppliers, Project Documents (submittals, diagrams, etc), Subcontractors, Purchase Orders, Invoices and Project Progress (EVM). Also, make sure you can track it daily, and you’re able to compare those daily costs with your original estimate.
Tip 4: Distribute Risk
With any project, there’s always going to be risk, and of course you have to assume some of it, but don’t take on an unreasonable amount. Whether you’re an owner or contractor, be sure to negotiate your position, and don’t get into a situation where there’s too high a threat of going over budget. This is a tricky topic to fully appreciate, but following are a couple examples.
Example 1: Owner
As an owner you may want to avoid giving subs Cost-Plus or Time and Materials contracts unless you have a long history with those subs. Many owners have taken to paying subcontractors a Unit Price for progress; which seems to be a fair way to share the risk burden from both sides. This is where the subcontractor is paid, for example, by “Meters of pipe installed”, or “Cubic yards of dirt moved”, etc., rather than hourly or on a fixed price.
Example 2: Contractor
Tip 5: Conduct Post Project Reviews
Learn from past mistakes and reinforce past successes by conducting retrospectives on what happened in historical projects. This includes tasks, such as:
- Watch historical trends to identify patterns that may need to be addressed
- Improve productivity by eliminating inefficiencies in past projects both by you and your subcontractors
- Watch for trends in costs or rates from suppliers or subcontractors. Use this data to influence future negotiations.
- Get a good reading on historical project cash flow and how it relates to various other project metrics
- Make sure you have a good understanding where you’re most profitable and where you’re not. Sometimes the customer that provides the most revenue may not necessarily provide the best profits.